Light independent reaction


There are a couple of good web sites on chloroplast structure and photosynthesis. For chloroplast structure try cells alive. The diagram below is from a useful site for both structure and the biochemistry. C/Chloroplasts.html


How many membranes surround the chloroplast?
The membrane systems running within a chloroplast are called
These membrane systems are wider in some regions and form stacks called

The liquid matrix inside the chloroplast is called the


Chloroplast structure

On the image below identify the membranes, the stroma and the thylakoids. Click on the image to see a labelled diagram to check your ideas (double click to restore the original image).


On the electron micrograph of a chloroplast try to find the same structures.

Biochemistry of Photosynthesis.

Remember those golden days of GCSE science when the whole of photosynthesis could be summed up in the equation:

Carbon dioxide + water —> sugar + oxygen

This equation is too simple to be of any use at 'A' level. Essentially there are two sets of reactions.

Light-dependent reaction and the Light-independent reaction