I saw in my dream, that when they were got out of the wilderness, they
presently saw a town before them, and the name of that town is Vanity;
and at the town there is a fair kept, called Vanity Fair: it is kept
all the year long. it beareth the name of Vanity Fair because the town
where it is kept is lighter than vanity; and, also because all that
is there sold, or that cometh thither, is vanity. As is the saying of
the wise, all that cometh is vanity.
This fair is no new-erected business, but a thing of ancient standing;
I will shew you the original of it.
Almost five thousand years agone, there were pilgrims walking to the
Celestial City, as these two honest persons are: and Beelzebub, Apollyon,
and Legion, with their companions, perceiving by the path that the pilgrims
made, that their way to the city lay through this town of Vanity, they
contrived here to set up a fair; a fair wherein, should be sold all
sorts of vanity, and that it should last all the year long: therefore
at this fair are all such merchandise sold, as houses, lands, trades,
places, honours, preferments, titles, countries, kingdoms, lusts, pleasures,
and delights of all sorts, as whores, bawds, wives, husbands, children,
masters, servants, lives, blood, bodies, souls, silver, gold, pearls,
precious stones, and what not.
And, moreover, at this fair there is at all times to be seen juggling
cheats, games, plays, fools, apes, knaves, and rogues, and that of every
Here are to be seen, too, and that for nothing, thefts, murders, adulteries,
false swearers, and that of a bloodred colour.
And as in other fairs of less moment, there are the several rows and
streets, under their proper names, where such and such wares are vended;
so here likewise you have the proper places, rows, streets, (viz; countries
and kingdoms,) where the wares of this fair are soonest to be found.
Here is the Britain Row, the French Row, the Italian Row, the Spanish
Row, the German Row, where several sorts of vanities are to be sold.
But, as in other fairs, some one commodity is as the chief of all the
fair, so the ware of Rome and her merchandise is greatly promoted in
this fair; only our English nation, with some others, have taken a dislike
Now, as I said, the way to the Celestial City lies just through this
town where this lusty fair is kept; and he that will go to the city,
and yet not go through this town, must needs go out of the world. The
Prince of princes himself, when here, went through this town to his
own country, and that upon a fair day too; yea, and as I think, it was
Beelzebub, the chief lord of this fair, that invited him to buy of his
vanities; yea, would have made him lord of the fair, would he but have
done him reverence as he went through the town. Yea, because he was
such a person of honour, Beelzebub had him from street to street, and
shewed him all the kingdoms of the world in a little time, that he might,
if possible, allure the Blessed One to cheapen and buy some of his vanities;
but he had no mind to the merchandise, and therefore left the town,
without laying out so much as one farthing upon these vanities. This
fair, therefore, is an ancient thing, of long standing, and a very great
fair. Now these pilgrims, as I said, must needs go through this fair.
Well, so they did: but, behold, even as they entered into the fair,
all the people in the fair were moved, and the town itself as it were
in a hubbub about them; and that for several reasons:
First, The pilgrims were clothed with such kind of raiment as was diverse
from the raiment of any that traded in that fair. The people, therefore,
of the fair, made a great gazing upon them: some said they were fools,
some they were bedlams, and some they are outlandish men.
Secondly, And as they wondered at their apparel, so they did likewise
at their speech; for few could understand what they said; they naturally
spoke the language of Canaan, but they that kept the fair were the men
of this world; so that, from one end of the fair to the other, they
seemed barbarians each to the other.
Thirdly, But that which did not a little amuse the merchandisers was,
that these pilgrims set very light by all their wares; they cared not
so much as to look upon them; and if they called upon them to buy, they
would put their fingers in their ears, and cry, Turn away mine eyes
from beholding vanity, and look upwards, signifying that their trade
and traffic was in heaven.
One chanced mockingly, beholding the carriage of the men, to say unto
them, What will ye buy? But they, looking gravely upon him, answered,
We buy the truth. At that there was an occasion taken to despise the
men the more; some mocking, some taunting, some speaking reproachfully,
and some calling upon others to smite them. At last things came to a
hubbub and great stir in the fair, insomuch that all order was confounded.
Now was word presently brought to the great one of the fair, who quickly
came down, and deputed some of his most trusty friends to take these
men into examination, about whom the fair was almost overturned. So
the men were brought to examination; and they that sat upon them, asked
them whence they came, whither they went, and what they did there, in
such an unusual garb? The men told them that they were pilgrims and
strangers in the world, and that they were going to their own country,
which was the heavenly Jerusalem, and that they had given no occasion
to the men of the town, nor yet to the merchandisers, thus to abuse
them, and to let them in their journey, except it was for that, when
one asked them what they would buy, they said they would buy the truth.
But they that were appointed to examine them did not believe them to
be any other than bedlams and mad, or else such as came to put all things
into a confusion in the fair. Therefore they took them and beat them,
and besmeared them with dirt, and then put them into the cage, that
they might be made a spectacle to all the men of the fair.
Behold Vanity Fair! the pilgrims there
chain'd and stand beside:
Even so it was our Lord pass'd here,
on Mount Calvary died.
therefore, they lay for some time, and were made the objects of any
man's sport, or malice, or revenge, the great one of the fair laughing
still at all that befell them. But the men being patient, and not rendering
railing for railing, but contrariwise, blessing, and giving good words
for bad, and kindness for injuries done, some men in the fair that were
more observing, and less prejudiced than the rest, began to check and
blame the baser sort for their continual abuses done by them to the
men; they, therefore, in angry manner, let fly at them again, counting
them as bad as the men in the cage, and telling them that they seemed
confederates, and should be made partakers of their misfortunes. The
other replied that, for aught they could see, the men were quiet, and
sober, and intended nobody any harm; and that there were many that traded
in their fair that were more worthy to be put into the cage, yea, and
pillory too, than were the men they had abused. Thus, after divers words
had passed on both sides, the men behaving themselves all the while
very wisely and soberly before them, they fell to some blows among themselves,
and did harm one to another. Then were these two poor men brought before
their examiners again, and there charged as being guilty of the late
hubbub that had been in the fair. So they beat them pitifully, and hanged
irons upon them, and led them in chains up and down the fair, for an
example and a terror to others, lest any should speak in their behalf,
or join themselves unto them. But Christian and Faithful behaved themselves
yet more wisely, and received the ignominy and shame that was cast upon
them, with so much meekness and patience, that it won to their side,
though but few in comparison of the rest, several of the men in the
fair. This put the other party yet into greater rage, insomuch that
they concluded the death of these two men. Wherefore they threatened,
that the cage nor irons should serve their turn, but that they should
die, for the abuse they had done, and for deluding the men of the fair.
Then were they remanded to the cage again, until further order should
be taken with them. So they put them in, and made their feet fast in
Here, therefore, they called again to mind what they had heard from
their faithful friend Evangelist, and were the more confirmed in their
way and sufferings by what he told them would happen to them. They also
now comforted each other, that whose lot it was to suffer, even he should
have the best of it; therefore each man secretly wished that he might
have that preferment: but committing themselves to the all-wise disposal
of Him that ruleth all things, with much content, they abode in the
condition in which they were, until they should be otherwise disposed
Then a convenient time being appointed, they brought them forth to their
trial, in order to their condemnation. When the time was come, they
were brought before their enemies and arraigned. The judge's name was
Lord Hategood. Their indictment was one and the same in substance, though
somewhat varying in form, the contents whereof were this:
'That they were enemies to and disturbers of their trade; that they
had made commotions and divisions in the town, and had won a party to
their own most dangerous opinions, in contempt of the law of their prince.'
Now, Faithful, play the man, speak for
Fear not the wickeds' malice; nor their
Speak boldly, man, the truth is on thy
Die for it, and to life in triumph ride.
Then Faithful began to answer, that he had only set himself against
that which hath set itself against Him that is higher than the highest.
And, said he, as for disturbance, I make none, being myself a man of
peace; the parties that were won to us, were won by beholding our truth
and innocence, and they are only turned from the worse to the better.
And as to the king you talk of, since he is Beelzebub, the enemy of
our Lord, I defy him and all his angels.
Then proclamation was made, that they that had aught to say for their
lord the king against the prisoner at the bar, should forthwith appear
and give in their evidence. So there came in three witnesses, to wit,
Envy, Superstition, and Pickthank. They were then asked if they knew
the prisoner at the bar; and what they had to say for their lord the
king against him.
Then stood forth Envy, and said to this effect: My Lord, I have known
this man a long time, and will attest upon my oath before this honourable
bench that he is --
Judge. Hold! Give him his oath. (So they
sware him.) Then he said --
Envy. My Lord, this man, notwithstanding
his plausible name, is one of the vilest men in our country. He neither
regardeth prince nor people, law nor custom; but doth all that he can
to possess all men with certain of his disloyal notions, which he in
the general calls principles of faith and holiness. And, in particular,
I heard him once myself affirm that Christianity and the customs of
our town of Vanity were diametrically opposite, and could not be reconciled.
By which saying, my Lord, he doth at once not only condemn all our laudable
doings, but us in the doing of them.
Judge. Then did the Judge say to him, Hast
thou any more to say?
Envy. My Lord, I could say much more, only
I would not be tedious to the court. Yet, if need be, when the other
gentlemen have given in their evidence, rather than anything shall be
wanting that will despatch him, I will enlarge my testimony against
him. So he was bid to stand by.
Then they called Superstition, and bid him look upon the prisoner. They
also asked, what he could say for their lord the king against him. Then
they sware him; so he began.
Super. My Lord, I have no great acquaintance
with this man, nor do I desire to have further knowledge of him; however,
this I know, that he is a very pestilent fellow, from some discourse
that, the other day, I had with him in this town; for then, talking
with him, I heard him say, that our religion was naught, and such by
which a man could by no means please God. Which sayings of his, my Lord,
your Lordship very well knows, what necessarily thence will follow,
to wit, that we do still worship in vain, are yet in our sins, and finally
shall be damned; and this is that which I have to say.
Then was Pickthank sworn, and bid say what he knew, in behalf of their
lord the king, against the prisoner at the bar.
Pick. My Lord, and you gentlemen all, This
fellow I have known of a long time, and have heard him speak things
that ought not to be spoke; for he hath railed on our noble prince Beelzebub,
and hath spoken contemptibly of his honourable friends, whose names
are the Lord Old Man, the Lord Carnal Delight, the Lord Luxurious, the
Lord Desire of Vain Glory, my old Lord Lechery, Sir Having Greedy, with
all the rest of our nobility; and he hath said, moreover, That if all
men were of his mind, if possible, there is not one of these noblemen
should have any longer a being in this town. Besides, he hath not been
afraid to rail on you, my Lord, who are now appointed to be his judge,
calling you an ungodly villain, with many other such like vilifying
terms, with which he hath bespattered most of the gentry of our town.
When this Pickthank had told his tale, the Judge directed his speech
to the prisoner at the bar, saying, Thou runagate, heretic, and traitor,
hast thou heard what these honest gentlemen have witnessed against thee?
Faith. May I speak a few words in my own
Judge. Sirrah! sirrah! thou deservest to
live no longer, but to be slain immediately upon the place; yet, that
all men may see our gentleness towards thee, let us hear what thou,
vile runagate, hast to say.
Faith. 1. I say, then, in answer to what Mr. Envy hath spoken,
I never said aught but this, That what rule, or laws, or customs, or
people, were flat against the Word of God, are diametrically opposite
to Christianity. If I have said amiss in this, convince me of my error,
and I am ready here before you to make my recantation.
2. As to the second, to wit, Mr. Superstition, and his charge against
me, I said only this, That in the worship of God there is required a
Divine faith; but there can be no Divine faith without a Divine revelation
of the will of God. Therefore, whatever is thrust into the worship of
God that is not agreeable to Divine revelation, cannot be done but by
a human faith, which faith will not be profitable to eternal life.
3. As to what Mr. Pickthank hath said, I say (avoiding terms, as that
I am said to rail, and the like) that the prince of this town, with
all the rabblement, his attendants, by this gentleman named, are more
fit for a being in hell, than in this town and country: and so, the
Lord have mercy upon me!
Then the Judge called to the jury, (who all this while stood by, to
hear and observe:) Gentlemen of the jury, you see this man about whom
so great an uproar hath been made in this town. You have also heard
what these worthy gentlemen have witnessed against him. Also you have
heard his reply and confession. It lieth now in your breasts to hang
him or save his life; but yet I think meet to instruct you into our
There was an Act made in the days of Pharaoh the Great, servant to our
prince, that lest those of a contrary religion should multiply and grow
too strong for him, their males should be thrown into the river. There
was also an Act made in the days of Nebuchadnezzar the Great, another
of his servants, that whosoever would not fall down and worship his
golden image, should be thrown into a fiery furnace. There was also
an Act made in the days of Darius, that whoso, for some time, called
upon any god but him, should be cast into the lions' den. Now the substance
of these laws this rebel has broken, not only in thought, (which is
not to be borne,) but also in word and deed, which must therefore needs
For that of Pharaoh, his law was made upon a supposition, to prevent
mischief, no crime being yet apparent; but here is a crime apparent.
For the second and third, you see he disputeth against our religion;
and for the treason he hath confessed, he deserveth to die the death.
Then went the jury out, whose names were, Mr. Blind-man, Mr. No-good,
Mr. Malice, Mr. Love-lust, Mr. Live-loose, Mr. Heady, Mr. High-mind,
Mr. Enmity, Mr. Liar, Mr. Cruelty, Mr. Hate-light, and Mr. Implacable;
who every one gave in his private verdict against him among themselves,
and afterwards unanimously concluded to bring him in guilty before the
And first, among themselves, Mr. Blind-man, the foreman, said, I see
clearly that this man is a heretic. Then said Mr. No-good, Away with
such a fellow from the earth. Ay, said Mr. Malice, for I hate the very
looks of him. Then said Mr. Love-lust, I could never endure him. Nor
I, said Mr. Live-loose, for he would always be condemning my way. Hang
him, hang him, said Mr. Heady. A sorry scrub, said Mr. High-mind. My
heart riseth against him, said Mr. Enmity. He is a rogue, said Mr. Liar.
Hanging is too good for him, said Mr. Cruelty.
Let us despatch him out of the way, said Mr. Hate-light. Then said Mr.
Implacable, Might I have all the world given me, I could not be reconciled
to him; therefore, let us forthwith bring him in guilty of death. And
so they did; therefore he was presently condemned to be had from the
place where he was, to the place from whence he came, and there to be
put to the most cruel death that could be invented.
They, therefore, brought him out, to do with him according to their
law; and, first, they scourged him, then they buffeted him, then they
lanced his flesh with knives; after that, they stoned him with stones,
then pricked him with their swords; and, last of all, they burned him
to ashes at the stake. Thus came Faithful to his end.
Now I saw that there stood behind the multitude a chariot and a couple
of horses, waiting for Faithful, who (so soon as his adversaries had
despatched him) was taken up into it, and straightway was carried up
through the clouds, with sound of trumpet, the nearest way to the Celestial
Brave Faithful, bravely done in word
Judge, witnesses, and jury have, instead
Of overcoming thee, but shewn their rage:
When they are dead, thou'lt live from
age to age.
But as for Christian, he had some respite, and was remanded back to
prison. So he there remained for a space; but He that overrules all
things, having the power of their rage in his own hand, so wrought it
about, that Christian for that time escaped them, and went his way;
and as he went, he sang, saying --
Well, Faithful, thou hast faithfully
Unto thy Lord; with whom thou shalt be
When faithless ones, with all their vain
Are crying out under their hellish plights:
Sing, Faithful, sing, and let thy name
For though they kill'd thee, thou art
Now I saw in my dream, that Christian went not forth alone, for there
was one whose name was Hopeful (being made so by the beholding of Christian
and Faithful in their words and behaviour, in their sufferings at the
fair,) who joined himself unto him, and, entering into a brotherly covenant,
told him that he would be his companion. Thus, one died to bear testimony
to the truth, and another rises out of his ashes, to be a companion
with Christian in his pilgrimage. This Hopeful also told Christian,
that there were many more of the men in the fair, that would take their
time and follow after.
So I saw that quickly after they were got out of the fair, they overtook
one that was going before them, whose name was By-ends: so they said
to him, What countryman; Sir? and how far go you this way? He told them
that he came from the town of Fair-speech, and he was going to the Celestial
City, but told them not his name.
From Fair-speech! said Christian. Is there any good that lives there?
By-ends. Yes, said By-ends, I hope.
Chr. Pray, Sir, what may I call you? said
By-ends. I am a stranger to you, and you
to me: if you be going this way, I shall be glad of your company; if
not, I must be content.
Chr. This town of Fair-speech, said Christian,
I have heard of; and, as I remember, they say it is a wealthy place.
By-ends. Yes, I will assure you that it
is; and I have very many rich kindred there.
Chr. Pray, who are your kindred there?
if a man may be so bold.
By-ends. Almost the whole town; and in
particular, my Lord Turn-about, my Lord Time-server, my Lord Fair-speech,
(from whose ancestors that town first took its name,) also Mr. Smooth-man,
Mr. Facing-both-ways, Mr. Any-thing; and the parson of our parish, Mr.
Two-tongues, was my mother's own brother by father's side; and to tell
you the truth, I am become a gentleman of good quality, yet my great-grandfather
was but a water-man, looking one way and rowing another, and I got most
of my estate by the same occupation.
Chr. Are you a married man?
By-ends. Yes, and my wife is a very virtuous
woman, the daughter of a virtuous woman; she was my Lady Feigning's
daughter, therefore she came of a very honourable family, and is arrived
to such a pitch of breeding, that she knows how to carry it to all,
even to prince and peasant. It is true we somewhat differ in religion
from those of the stricter sort, yet but in two small points: first,
we never strive against wind and tide; secondly, we are always most
zealous when religion goes in his silver slippers; we love much to walk
with him in the street, if the sun shines, and the people applaud him.
Then Christian stepped a little aside to his fellow, Hopeful, saying,
It runs in my mind that this is one By-ends of Fair-speech; and if it
be he, we have as very a knave in our company as dwelleth in all these
parts. Then said Hopeful, Ask him; methinks he should not be ashamed
of his name. So Christian came up with him again, and said, Sir, you
talk as if you knew something more than all the world doth; and if I
take not my mark amiss, I deem I have half a guess of you: Is not your
name Mr. By-ends, of Fair-speech?
By-ends. This is not my name, but indeed
it is a nick-name that is given me by some that cannot abide me: and
I must be content to bear it as a reproach, as other good men have borne
theirs before me.
Chr. But did you never give an occasion
to men to call you by this name?
By-ends. Never, never! The worst that ever
I did to give them an occasion to give me this name was, that I had
always the luck to jump in my judgment with the present way of the times,
whatever it was, and my chance was to get thereby; but if things are
thus cast upon me, let me count them, a blessing; but let not the malicious
load me therefore with reproach.
Chr. I thought, indeed, that you were the
man that I heard of; and to tell you what I think, I fear this name
belongs to you more properly than you are willing we should think it
By-ends. Well, if you will thus imagine,
I cannot help it; you shall find me a fair company-keeper, if you will
still admit me your associate.
Chr. If you will go with us, you must go
against wind and tide; the which, I perceive, is against your opinion;
you must also own religion in his rags, as well as when in his silver
slippers; and stand by him, too, when bound in irons, as well as when
he walketh the streets with applause.
By-ends. You must not impose, nor lord
it over my faith; leave me to my liberty, and let me go with you.
Chr. Not a step further, unless you will
do in what I propound as we.
Then said By-ends, I shall never desert my old principles, since they
are harmless and profitable. If I may not go with you, I must do as
I did before you overtook me, even go by myself, until some overtake
me that will be glad of my company.
Now I saw in my dream that Christian and Hopeful forsook him, and kept
their distance before him; but one of them looking back, saw three men
following Mr. By-ends, and behold, as they came up with him, he made
them a very low conge; and they also gave him a compliment. The men's
names were Mr. Hold-the-world, Mr. Money-love, and Mr. Save-all; men
that Mr. By-ends had formerly been acquainted with; for in their minority
they were schoolfellows, and were taught by one Mr. Gripe-man, a schoolmaster
in Love-gain, which is a market town in the county of Coveting, in the
north. This schoolmaster taught them the art of getting, either by violence,
cozenage, flattery, lying, or by putting on the guise of religion; and
these four gentlemen had attained much of the art of their master, so
that they could each of them have kept such a school themselves.
Well, when they had, as I said, thus saluted each other, Mr. Money-love
said to Mr. By-ends, Who are they upon the road before us? (for Christian
and Hopeful were yet within view).
By-ends. They are a couple of far countrymen,
that, after their mode, are going on pilgrimage.
Money-love. Alas! Why did they not stay,
that we might have had their good company? for they, and we, and you,
Sir, I hope, are all going on pilgrimage.
By-ends. We are so, indeed; but the men
before us are so rigid, and love so much their own notions, and do also
so lightly esteem the opinions of others, that let a man be never so
godly, yet if he jumps not with them in all things, they thrust him
quite out of their company.
Save-all. That is bad, but we read of some
that are righteous overmuch; and such men's rigidness prevails with
them to judge and condemn all but themselves. But, I pray, what, and
how many, were the things wherein you differed?
By-ends. Why, they, after their headstrong
manner, conclude that it is duty to rush on their journey all weathers;
and I am for waiting for wind and tide. They are for hazarding all for
God at a clap; and I am for taking all advantages to secure my life
and estate. They are for holding their notions, though all other men
are against them; but I am for religion in what, and so far as the times,
and my safety, will bear it. They are for religion when in rags and
contempt; but I am for him when he walks in his golden slippers, in
the sunshine, and with applause.
Mr. Hold-the-world. Ay, and hold you there
still, good Mr. By-ends; for, for my part, I can count him but a fool,
that, having the liberty to keep what he has, shall be so unwise as
to lose it. Let us be wise as serpents; it is best to make hay when
the sun shines; you see how the bee lieth still all winter, and bestirs
her only when she can have profit with pleasure. God sends sometimes
rain, and sometimes sunshine; if they be such fools to go through the
first, yet let us be content to take fair weather along with us. For
my part, I like that religion best that will stand with the security
of God's good blessings unto us; for who can imagine, that is ruled
by his reason, since God has bestowed upon us the good things of this
life, but that he would have us keep them for his sake? Abraham and
Solomon grew rich in religion. And Job says, that a good man shall lay
up gold as dust. But he must not be such as the men before us, if they
be as you have described them.
Mr. Save-all. I think that we are all agreed
in this matter, and therefore there needs no more words about it.
Mr. Money-love. No, there needs no more words about this matter,
indeed; for he that believes neither Scripture nor reason (and you see
we have both on our side) neither knows his own liberty, nor seeks his
By-ends. My brethren, we are, as you see, going all on pilgrimage;
and, for our better diversion from things that are bad, give me leave
to propound unto you this question: -- Suppose a man, a minister, or
a tradesman, &c., should have an advantage lie before him, to get
the good blessings of this life, yet so as that he can by no means come
by them except, in appearance at least, he becomes extraordinarily zealous
in some points of religion that he meddled not with before, may he not
use these means to attain his end, and yet be a right honest man?
Mr. Money-love. I see the bottom of your question; and, with
these gentlemen's good leave, I will endeavour to shape you an answer.
And first, to speak to your question as it concerns a minister himself:
Suppose a minister, a worthy man, possessed but of a very small benefice,
and has in his eye a greater, more fat, and plump by far; he has also
now an opportunity of getting of it, yet so as by being more studious,
by preaching more frequently and zealously, and, because the temper
of the people requires it, by altering of some of his principles; for
my part, I see no reason but a man may do this, (provided he has a call,)
ay, and more a great deal besides, and yet be an honest man. For why
1. His desire of a greater benefice is lawful, (this cannot be contradicted,)
since it is set before him by Providence; so then, he may get it, if
he can, making no question for conscience' sake.
2. Besides, his desire after that benefice makes him more studious,
a more zealous preacher, &c., and so makes him a better man; yea,
makes him better improve his parts, which is according to the mind of
3. Now, as for his complying with the temper of his people, by dissenting,
to serve them, some of his principles, this argueth --
(1.) That he is of a self-denying, temper;
(2.) Of a sweet and winning deportment; and so
(3.) More fit for the ministerial function.
4. I conclude, then, that a minister that changes a small for a great,
should not, for so doing, be judged as covetous; but rather, since he
has improved in his parts and industry thereby, be counted as one that
pursues his call, and the opportunity put into his hands to do good.
And now to the second part of the question, which concerns the tradesman
you mentioned. Suppose such a one to have but a poor employ in the world,
but by becoming religious, he may mend his market, perhaps get a rich
wife, or more and far better customers to his shop; for my part, I see
no reason but that this may be lawfully done. For why --
1. To become religious is a virtue, by what means soever a man becomes
2. Nor is it unlawful to get a rich wife, or more custom to my shop.
3. Besides, the man that gets these by becoming religious, gets that
which is good, of them that are good, by becoming good himself; so then
here is a good wife, and good customers, and good gain, and all these
by becoming religious, which is good; therefore, to become religious,
to get all these, is a good and profitable design.
This answer, thus made by this Mr. Money-love to Mr. By-ends's question,
was highly applauded by them all; wherefore they concluded upon the
whole, that it was most wholesome and advantageous. And because, as
they thought, no man was able to contradict it, and because Christian
and Hopeful were yet within call, they jointly agreed to assault them
with the question as soon as they overtook them; and the rather because
they had opposed Mr. By-ends before. So they called after them, and
they stopped, and stood still till they came up to them; but they concluded,
as they went, that not Mr. By-ends, but old Mr. Hold-the-world, should
propound the question to them, because, as they supposed, their answer
to him would be without the remainder of that heat that was kindled
betwixt Mr. By-ends and them, at their parting a little before.
So they came up to each other, and after a short salutation, Mr. Hold-the-world
propounded the question to Christian and his fellow, and bid them to
answer it if they could.
Chr. Then said Christian, Even a babe in
religion may answer ten thousand such questions. For if it be unlawful
to follow Christ for loaves, (as it is in the sixth of John,) how much
more abominable is it to make of him and religion a stalking-horse to
get and enjoy the world! Nor do we find any other than heathens, hypocrites,
devils, and witches, that are of this opinion.
1. Heathens; for when Hamor and Shechem had a mind to the daughter and
cattle of Jacob, and saw that there was no way for them to come at them,
but by becoming circumcised, they say to their companions, If every
male of us be circumcised, as they are circumcised, shall not their
cattle, and their substance, and every beast of theirs, be ours? Their
daughter and their cattle were that which they sought to obtain, and
their religion the stalking-horse they made use of to come at them.
Read the whole story, Gen. xxxiv. 20-23.
2. The hypocritical Pharisees were also of this religion; long prayers
were their pretence, but to get widows' houses was their intent; and
greater damnation was from God their judgment.
3. Judas the devil was also of this religion; he was religious for the
bag, that he might be possessed of what was therein; but he was lost,
cast away, and the very son of perdition.
4. Simon the witch was of this religion too; for he would have had the
Holy Ghost, that he might have got money therewith; and his sentence
from Peter's mouth was according.
5. Neither will it out of my mind, but that that man that takes up religion
for the world, will throw away religion for the world; for so surely
as Judas resigned the world in becoming religious, so surely did he
also sell religion and his Master for the same. To answer the question,
therefore, affirmatively, as I perceive you have done, and to accept
of, as authentic, such answer, is both heathenish, hypocritical, and
devilish; and your reward will be according to your works. Then they
stood staring one upon another, but had not wherewith to answer Christian.
Hopeful also approved of the soundness of Christian's answer; so there
was a great silence among them. Mr. By-ends and his company also staggered
and kept behind, that Christian and Hopeful might outgo them. Then said
Christian to his fellow, If these men cannot stand before the sentence
of men, what will they do with the sentence of God? And if they are
mute when dealt with by vessels of clay, what will they do when they
shall be rebuked by the flames of a devouring fire?
Then Christian and Hopeful outwent them again, and went till they came
to a delicate plain called Ease, where they went with much content;
but that plain was but narrow, so they were quickly got over it. Now
at the further side of that plain was a little hill called Lucre, and
in that hill a silver mine, which some of them that had formerly gone
that way, because of the rarity of it, had turned aside to see; but
going too near the brink of the pit, the ground being deceitful under
them, broke, and they were slain; some also had been maimed there, and
could not, to their dying day, be their own men again.
Then I saw in my dream, that a little off the road, over against the
silver mine, stood Demas (gentlemanlike) to call to passengers to come
and see; who said to Christian and his fellow, Ho! turn aside hither,
and I will shew you a thing.
Chr. What thing so deserving as to turn
us out of the way to see it?
Demas. Here is a silver mine, and some
digging in it for treasure. If you will come, with a little pains you
may richly provide for yourselves.
Hope. Then said Hopeful, Let us go see.
Chr. Not I, said Christian, I have heard
of this place before now; and how many have there been slain; and besides
that, treasure is a snare to those that seek it; for it hindereth them
in their pilgrimage. Then Christian called to Demas, saying, Is not
the place dangerous? Hath it not hindered many in their pilgrimage?
Demas. Not very dangerous, except to those
that are careless, (but withal he blushed as he spake).
Chr. Then said Christian to Hopeful, Let
us not stir a step, but still keep on our way.
Hope. I will warrant you, when By-ends
comes up, if he hath the same invitation as we, he will turn in thither
Chr. No doubt thereof, for his principles
lead him that way, and a hundred to one but he dies there.
Demas. Then Demas called again, saying,
But will you not come over and see?
Chr. Then Christian roundly answered, saying, Demas, thou art
an enemy to the right ways of the Lord of this way, and hast been already
condemned for thine own turning aside, by one of His Majesty's judges;
and why seekest thou to bring us into the like condemnation? Besides,
if we at all turn aside, our Lord and King will certainly hear thereof,
and will there put us to shame, where we would stand with boldness before
Demas cried again, that he also was one of their fraternity; and that
if they would tarry a little, he also himself would walk with them.
Chr. Then said Christian, What is thy name?
Is it not the same by the which I have called thee?
Demas. Yes, my name is Demas; I am the son of Abraham.
Chr. I know you; Gehazi was your great-grandfather,
and Judas your father; and you have trod in their steps. It is but a
devilish prank that thou usest; thy father was hanged for a traitor,
and thou deservest no better reward. Assure thyself, that when we come
to the King, we will do him word of this thy behaviour. Thus they went
By this time By-ends and his companions were come again within sight,
and they, at the first beck, went over to Demas. Now, whether they fell
into the pit by looking over the brink thereof, or whether they went
down to dig, or whether they were smothered in the bottom by the damps
that commonly arise, of these things I am not certain; but this I observed,
that they never were seen again in the way. Then sang Christian --
By-ends and silver Demas both agree;
One calls, the other runs, that he may
A sharer in his lucre; so these do
Take up in this world, and no further
Now I saw that, just on the other side of this plain, the pilgrims came
to a place where stood an old monument, hard by the highway side, at
the sight of which they were both concerned, because of the strangeness
of the form thereof; for it seemed to them as if it had been a woman
transformed into the shape of a pillar; here, therefore they stood looking,
and looking upon it, but could not for a time tell what they should
make thereof. At last Hopeful espied written above the head thereof,
a writing in an unusual hand; but he being no scholar, called to Christian
(for he was learned) to see if he could pick out the meaning; so he
came, and after a little laying of letters together, he found the same
to be this, Remember Lot's Wife. So he read it to his fellow; after
which they both concluded that that was the pillar of salt into which
Lot's wife was turned, for her looking back with a covetous heart, when
she was going from Sodom for safety. Which sudden and amazing sight
gave them occasion of this discourse.
Chr. Ah, my brother! this is a seasonable
sight; it came opportunely to us after the invitation which Demas gave
us to come over to view the Hill Lucre; and had we gone over, as he
desired us, and as thou wast inclining to do, my brother, we had, for
aught I know, been made ourselves like this woman, a spectacle for those
that shall come after to behold.
Hope. I am sorry that I was so foolish,
and am made to wonder that I am not now as Lot's wife; for wherein was
the difference betwixt her sin and mine? She only looked back; and I
had a desire to go see. Let grace be adored, and let me be ashamed that
ever such a thing should be in mine heart.
Chr. Let us take notice of what we see
here, for our help for time to come. This woman escaped one judgment,
for she fell not by the destruction of Sodom; yet she was destroyed
by another, as we see she is turned into a pillar of salt.
Hope. True; and she may be to us both caution
and example; caution, that we should shun her sin; or a sign of what
judgment will overtake such as shall not be prevented by this caution;
so Korah, Dathan, and Abiram, with the two hundred and fifty men that
perished in their sin, did also become a sign or example to others to
beware. But above all, I muse at one thing, to wit, how Demas and his
fellows can stand so confidently yonder to look for that treasure, which
this woman, but for looking behind her after, (for we read not that
she stepped one foot out of the way) was turned into a pillar of salt;
especially since the judgment which overtook her did make her an example,
within sight of where they are; for they cannot choose but see her,
did they but lift up their eyes.
Chr. It is a thing to be wondered at, and
it argueth that their hearts are grown desperate in the case; and I
cannot tell who to compare them to so fitly, as to them that pick pockets
in the presence of the judge, or that will cut purses under the gallows.
It is said of the men of Sodom, that they were sinners exceedingly,
because they were sinners before the Lord, that is, in his eyesight,
and notwithstanding the kindnesses that he had shewed them; for the
land of Sodom was now like the garden of Eden heretofore. This, therefore,
provoked him the more to jealousy, and made their plague as hot as the
fire of the Lord out of heaven could make it. And it is most rationally
to be concluded, that such, even such as these are, that shall sin in
the sight, yea, and that too in despite of such examples that are set
continually before them, to caution them to the contrary, must be partakers
of severest judgments.
Hope. Doubtless thou hast said the truth;
but what a mercy is it that neither thou, but especially I, am not made
myself this example! This ministereth occasion to us to thank God, to
fear before him, and always to remember Lot's wife.
I saw, then, that they went on their way to a pleasant river; which
David the king called the river of God, but John, the river of the water
of life. Now their way lay just upon the bank of the river; here, therefore,
Christian and his companion walked with great delight; they drank also
of the water of the river, which was pleasant, and enlivening to their
weary spirits; besides, on the banks of this river, on either side,
were green trees, that bore all manner of fruit; and the leaves of the
trees were good for medicine; with the fruit of these trees they were
also much delighted; and the leaves they eat to prevent surfeits, and
other diseases that are incident to those that heat their blood by travels.
On either side of the river was also a meadow, curiously beautified
with lilies, and it was green all the year long. In this meadow they
lay down, and slept; for here they might lie down safely. When they
awoke, they gathered again of the fruit of the trees, and drank again
of the water of the river, and then lay down again to sleep. Thus they
did several days and nights. Then they sang --
Behold ye how these crystal streams do
To comfort pilgrims by the highway side;
The meadows green, beside their fragrant
Yield dainties for them; and he that
What pleasant fruit, yea, leaves, these
trees do yield,
Will soon sell all, that he may buy this
So when they were disposed to go on, (for they were not, as yet, at
their journey's end,) they ate and drank, and departed.
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