Lesson 1 The Underwater Photo Course
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The following list represents the syllabus contents for the technical part of the English (AEB) Art and Photography "A" Level examination. I have included it here as it is a useful study reference, and breaks down the technical knowledge into structured chunks.

Alongside most items is a reference in the form BPnn or APnn. These refer you to the appropriate page numbers in the books listed in the Resources page of this lesson. For example, BP27 refers to Page 27 of Basic Photography, and AP124 refers to Page 124 of Advanced Photography.

Note that these page numbers refer to the specific editions that I have quoted. These two books are revised on a regular basis, and pages may not match on newer versions when they are released.

Photographic technique and practice

Candidates should have knowledge and understanding of the following concepts and procedures. They should also be able to analyse information accurately and use their judgement in order to describe a suitable plan and procedure for carrying out a wide range of practical assignments.

Candidates should keep up to date with contemporary developments in the styles, techniques, equipment and materials available in photography

(a) Cameras, Lenses and related equipment

(i) Types of cameras,
35mm compact, BP65
single lens reflex, BP69, AP38
roll film, BP67, AP39
larger format sheet film cameras, BP61, AP41

(ii) Types of lenses
short, BP76, AP31
standard, BP76
long focal length lenses, BP76
mirror, AP29
telephoto, BP82
zoom, BP85, AP28
perspective control (shift) lenses, BP97

(iii) Focusing
manual methods, BP38, BP71
automatic methods, BP65, BP71

(iv) Aperture and shutter
the function and effects of the aperture and shutter, BP39
their control by automatic and programmed techniques, BP66, BP196

(v) Close-up accessories
extension tubes, BP90
bellows, BP88
supplementary lenses, BP91
macro lens, AP33

(vi) Filters
colour, BP176, AP115
neutral density, BP178
polarising filters, BP179
equipment for the production of special effects, BP177, BP180

(vii) Care of equipment, BP48

(b) Light and Light sources

(i) The importance of health and safety requirements, AP137

(ii) The nature and properties of light; wavelength and electromagnetic spectrum, BP21

(iii) Characteristics of light sources used in photography,
natural light, BP122
tungsten, BP118
fluorescent, BP122, AP113
electronic flash, BP120, AP114

(iv) The effect of light when it strikes a surface
Reflection, BP24
Refraction, BP25, AP15
Dispersion, BP35, AP15
Polarisation, BP179
Transmission, BP25
Absorption, BP169
Diffraction, BP29

(v) Reflectors
Types, BP115, BP120, BP122, BP125
Uses, BP115, BP120, BP122, BP125

(vi) The inverse square law and its practical significance, BP21

(vii) The control of lighting for qualitative effects which may give emphasis to shape, texture, form, drama and visual interest, BP128, BP111, AP107

(viii) Charactaristics of light
Quality, BP111, AP119
Direction, BP112, AP119
Contrast, BP112, AP110
Evenness, BP117, AP119
Colour, BP117, AP111
Intensity, BP118, AP119

(c) Exposure

(i) The factors that influence the choice of exposure, and the methods whereby the "correct" exposure may be assessed for a variety of different situations when using natural light, tungsten or electronic flash, BP186, AP141

(ii) Metering
Manual metering, BP192
through-the-lens metering, BP196

(iii) Metering systems, AP146
Integrated, BP197
Centre-weighted, BP197
Spot metering systems, BP197

(iv) The practical significance of reciprocity failure, BP161, AP73, AP237

(v) The control of exposure for specific effects

(d) Sensitive materials

(i) Composition of a
monochrome negative, BP157, AP85
colour negative, BP171, AP95
colour reversal material, BP174, AP91

(ii) spectral sensitivity of photographic materials, BP163, AP72 (including infra-red materials)

(iii) the selection of appropriate materials for specific purposes, BP165, BP171, AP77, AP62

(iv) the relationship between contrast, speed, and grain size, BP166, BP224, AP67

(v) the selection of photographic papers for
contrast, BP246, AP229
image colour, BP246, AP204
surface texture, BP244, AP142

(e) Processing, printing and finishing

(i) The importance of health and safety requirements, BP216

(ii) Procedures for processing
Correctly exposed, BP214
under-exposed films, BP223, AP63
over-exposed films, BP224, AP67

(iii) The effect of processing on
contrast, BP214
graininess, BP214

(iv) The purpose of the solutions required for processing a monochrome film
to transparency, BP230
negative (including chromogenic processing), BP230

(v) Orderly layout of the darkroom for efficient and safe working, BP236

(vi) Types of enlarger, BP238, AP224

(vii) Safelights, BP249, AP228

(viii) The control of contrast when printing, BP246

(ix) Local manipulation of exposure, BP261, AP233

(x) The manipulation of the photographic image to produce special effects, such as
tone control, BP276
multiple exposure,
toning, BP278
tinting, BP280

(xi) Faults
processing faults, BP233, AP220
printing faults, BP227

(xii) mounting and presentation, BP275

(f) Colour Photography, AP60-106, AP197

(i) Trichomatic theory, AP85

(ii) Additive and subtractive analysis and synthesis, AP95, AP91

(iii) The characteristics of colour materials and processes available for the production of
negatives, AP85-106
transparencies, AP85-106
prints, AP85-106

(iv) Techniques of exposure for optimum colour reproduction for
colour reversal materials, AP63
colour negative materials, AP64

(v) Techniques for special effects
Camera techniques, BP201, AP45, AP194
Processing techniques, BP201

(vi) The purpose of the solutions required for processing a substantive colour reversal material, BP175, BP216, BP228

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This page was last updated on 11 August 1998
Please address any comments to Mark Mumford