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Flying the Lorel hold - Andrew M's definitive guide

Entry into Lorel hold using the FMC can sometimes be a bit tricky, as it requires overflying BKY and BUSTA before entering the hold proper. Andrew Mason has therefore written a practical guide to flying the hold in three popular aircraft.

1) Dreamfleet/Flight One Greatest Airliners 737-400

Make sure the active runway and appropriate STAR for Stansted/Luton is selected and entered in the Route. Routings are available from the Essex website. Set speed 220 knots and FL080 for BKY, BUSTA and LOREL in the legs page before you start your descent. Enter the hold page and select LOREL as the hold. Enter 191 degrees inbound course and left turns, with a 1 minute leg. Use the autopilot controls on the MCP to set speeds and levels issued by ATC if these are different to those in the legs page. (if holding is required you will more than likely be kept at a higher level than FL080, so select this in the MCP and this will take the aircraft out of VNAV mode).

Once on a heading towards BKY VOR, change the heading in the MCP to match that you are flying to take you direct to BKY. When the LNAV changes the active waypoint from BKY to BUSTA hit heading select immediately, removing the aircraft from LNAV mode. As the aircraft gets to 2 DME from BKY, re-engage LNAV and the aircraft will turn towards BUSTA. Once inbound to BUSTA, change heading to 005 degrees, and wait for LNAV to switch the active waypoint from BUSTA to LOREL. Then re-engage heading select until you overfly BUSTA. Reselect LNAV and the aircraft will turn towards LOREL. If it does not seem to track directly to LOREL, then disengage LNAV then immediately re-engage it. If the aircraft is not at 220 knots indicated already, then select this speed on the MCP and activate the speed hold.

You should then intercept the 191 inbound course into LOREL and begin to hold. If the controller descends you through the flight levels in the hold, do this promptly but monitor the autopilot at all time. If the VNAV start misbehaving - use the MCP instead and speed control and VS mode. When the controller asks you to leave the hold it may be at LOREL, in which case arm the exit hold mode, and set the heading required on the MCP. When the aircraft rolls left from LOREL, arm the heading select and procede as instructed. If the controller aks you to leave the hold from your present position, select the heading required, and engage heading select. BE CAREFUL not to turn the in the wrong direction from that which the controller requires - i.e change the heading gradually in increments of 30 degrees to make the aircraft turn in the correct direction.

2) Wilco PIC 767

Set up the hold at LOREL as described above:- course 191, left turns, 1min legs.
Set up the altitude and speed constraints at BKY, BUSTA, LOREL as above:-220kts, FL080.
Comply with ATC instructions by using the MCP to select appropriate flight levels etc. Use manual speed control if the aircraft doesn't appear to slow down to 220 knots.
Allow the aircraft to turn from BKY to BUSTA on LNAV. Then select the heading 005 degrees, and wait until the LNAV active waypoint changes from BUSTA to LOREL. Engage heading select until overflying BUSTA, then rengage LNAV. When you have turned through 150 degree (say heading 220) then select LOREL in the legs page, then select it again and EXEC the change. This will make the aircraft fly directly to LOREL and enter the hold. Leave the hold as described above.

3) PSS A319/320/321

Set up the hold in the usual PSS Airbus FMC manner, with the constraints as above. Use the correct mode on the FMGS to comply with controllers speed and level constraints if necessary. Use the Overfly button at the bottom of the FMC to mark BKY and BUSTA as waypoints which must be overflown - do this before takeoff. Make sure the speed is 220 knots or less as you pass BUSTA - if necessary use the FMGS to manually enable speed select. The Airbus should enter the hold via BKY and BUSTA correctly, leaving you to enjoy the view out of the window, whilst complying with any descents. Leave the hold by engaging heading select mode either at LOREL or mid hold as directed by the controller.